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This investment is likely to be fulfilled through public-private-partnership PPP projects that are based on long-term concessions. India manufactures over 11 million 2 and 4-wheeled vehicles and exports about 1. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 2.
As of , India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and more than 1. By , the country is expected to top the world in car volumes with approximately million vehicles on the nation's roads. In , Hyundai Motors alone exported , cars made in India. Nissan Motors plans to export , vehicles manufactured in its India plant by Similarly, General Motors announced its plans to export about 50, cars manufactured in India by In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than , cars annually from India.
Apart from shipments to its parent Suzuki, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African markets, and is in preparation to launch electric vehicles in Europe in The firm is also planning to launch an electric version of its low-cost car Nano in Europe and the U.
Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for the Renault Nissan Automotive India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project.
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Although a major chunk of this will come from the fast growing domestic market, exports are likely to form around 35 per cent of the total market by Europe is likely to account for The industry has witnessed a shift in the composition of exports over the years. Indian vehicles available in Chile include motor cars and light trucks.
Exports account for more than one-fourth of GDP, with commodities making up some threequarters of total exports. Copper alone provides one-third of government revenue. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January Chile claims to have more bilateral or regional trade agreements than any other country.
It has 57 such agreements not all of them full free trade agreements , including with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. The Chilean government conducts a rule-based countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. The earthquake and subsequent tsunamis it generated caused considerable damage near the epicenter, located about 70 miles from Concepcion - and about miles southwest of Santiago.
Trade and Investment Regime Chile's trade and investment regime continues to be characterized by openness, transparency, predictability and inter-sectoral neutrality. Chile applies an almost uniform MFN most-favourednation tariff and grants national treatment to foreign investors in all but a few cases.
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Chile has adopted measures to modernize customs and facilitate trade, abolished some import taxes and export subsidies, and introduced significant reforms to its competition policy, government procurement and intellectual property systems. At the same time, Chile remains strongly committed to the multilateral trading system, where it participates actively. Economic Environment The Chilean economy grew at an annual average rate of 4. At the same time, Chile has implemented internal policies to ensure that the gains from trade are more broadly distributed; this and sustained growth have reduced the proportion of the population living in poverty from 21 per cent in to 14 per cent in Chile maintains a floating exchange rate system.
Monetary policy seeks to achieve an annual inflation target of 2 per cent to 4 per cent, and has generally kept inflation under control.
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Fiscal policy aims at obtaining a structural surplus, which saw Chile enter the present global crisis with room for discretionary action. As a result, Chile has been able to adopt an expansionary fiscal policy since , using public assets accumulated when commodity prices were high. Sound macroeconomic policies and open trade have allowed Chile to profit from economic specialization while lessening the vulnerabilities associated with it. As at mid Chile had in force 21 RTAs with 57 trading partners. As a result, just over 92 per cent of Chile's total merchandise trade is carried out with preferential partners.
Chile considers foreign investment as an essential engine of growth, and an integral part of its open economic policy. It grants national treatment to foreign investors, with a few exceptions in areas such as fisheries, air and maritime transport, and audiovisual services. Chile has in force a large number of bilateral agreements to promote and protect foreign investment, and to avoid double taxation.
Market Access For Goods Chile has continued to adopt measures to facilitate trade and to modernize customs, including new valuation regulations. As a result of previous unilateral tariff reductions, since Chile has applied a single MFN tariff rate of 6 per cent, with a few exceptions that reduce somewhat the otherwise noteworthy simplicity and neutrality of Chile's tariff structure.
The exceptions are: a Under the RTA with the United States, the MFN tariff on poultry products was increased to 25 per cent but is being progressively reduced back to 6 per cent. A zero rate on certain capital goods reduces nominal tariff protection, but increases effective protection on final goods. The MFN tariffs applied to wheat, wheat flour and sugar vary with international prices as a result of the price band system applied to these products; reflecting the high prices prevailing in recent years, the use of this system appears to have resulted in tariffs no higher than the general 6 per cent rate.
All tariff lines are bound, most at 25 per cent; a number of agricultural products are bound at Chile renegotiated the bound rate for sugar, resulting in an increase of the bound rate to 98 per cent and the introduction of a tariff quota in Although Chile's applied tariff rates have been stable in practice, reducing bound rates would enhance certainty to MFN traders. Chile imposes other charges on certain import operations, some on an ad valorem basis. Certain goods, such as alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, vehicles and jewellery, are subject to excise taxes.
Since Chile has abolished the airport tax and the customs dispatch tax. Chile does not apply quantitative import restrictions or import licenses. However, it prohibits, Page Initially introduced to assist the domestic vehicle assembly industry, the import prohibition on used motor vehicles is ostensibly maintained for safety and environmental reasons.
The import prohibition on used and retreaded tyres seeks public health objectives. It would be valuable to study whether less trade-restrictive measures could achieve the same objectives sought through outright import prohibitions on used motor vehicles and tyres. Also on safety, health and environmental grounds, Chile applies administrative formalities to certain imports. Other Measures Affecting Trade Chile maintains a number of export promotion programmes that offer administrative facilities for the payment and reimbursement of import duties and VAT. During the period under review, Chile phased out certain aspects of these programmes that it had previously notified as providing export subsidies.
Several public financing and guarantee schemes are also offered to exporters, mainly to small- and medium-sized enterprises. Chile does not apply export taxes. Chile has in place numerous other incentive programmes, but most eschew targeting particular sectors in favour of horizontal measures targeting small- and medium-sized enterprises, technological innovation or regional development.
Chile has introduced important reforms to its competition policy framework, most notably by establishing a competition tribunal to increase the autonomy of the competition system. Further reforms to strengthen the investigative powers of the competition authority, in particular against cartels, are expected to come into force in late Chile is not a signatory to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement but it is an observer in the respective WTO committee. Since , Chile has implemented significant reforms to increase the transparency and efficiency of public procurement, particularly through the adoption of new legislation and the use of electronic tendering.
The reforms have led to greater participation in the public procurement market. There is no discrimination based on the origin of products, services or providers. Public procurement by state enterprises and procurement of construction works are subject to separate regulations. Reforms have also been made to Chile's intellectual property system with the aim of strengthening and adapting it to Chile's international commitments. In some instances, the Chilean legislation goes further than the obligations of the TRIPs Agreement, for example, in certain aspects relating to the protection of copyrights and industrial property.
Chile has notified to the WTO the changes to its legislation. In general, the sector enjoys a low level of support, which is mainly geared to small farmers and does not include productionbased measures. However, Chile has used contingency measures to protect domestic producers of wheat, wheat flower and certain dairy products, while the price band system it applies to wheat, wheat flour and sugar results in tariff protection that can vary inversely with the world price of these products. This is at odds with Chile s general economic policies, and may hinder the reallocation of resources among activities that would support higher living standards in the longrun.
Aquaculture has gained importance and now accounts for two-thirds of fish exports, but it is facing serious sanitary problems. Foreigners must comply with residency and establishment requirements to invest in fishing or aquaculture activities, while companies must be Chilean majority-owned or be established in countries that grant reciprocal treatment to Chileans. Mining The mining sector consolidated its position as Chile's main export revenue generator and foreign investment recipient, benefiting from the high mineral prices that prevailed during much of the period since The State continues to play a fundamental role as an operator in the sector, mostly in the production of copper.
During the review period, Chile introduced a new tax on mining activities. A regulation remains in place requiring the main mining companies to deliver certain quantities of refined copper to domestic manufacturing enterprises; in practice the quantities involved represent only a small fraction of Chile's copper production. Manufacturing The manufacturing sector has increased its productivity, and remains an important generator of value added and employment. This reflects in part Chile's development strategy based on trade liberalization and inter-sectoral neutrality.
The sector continues to be largely based on the processing of natural resources, thus reflecting Chile's comparative advantage. Energy Chile is highly dependent on imports of energy to satisfy domestic consumption, and restrictions on the foreign supply of gas in recent years have become a constraint to Chile's economic performance. Chile has intervened in the domestic energy market to stabilize the price of certain fuels, possibly at a considerable fiscal cost; it is also adopting policies aimed at ensuring a sustainable energy supply in the long-run.
Telecommunications Since , no major changes have been made to the legal framework governing the telecommunications sector.
Concessions to operate public telecommunication services are granted to companies established in Chile, independently of the origin of capital. However, concessions for radio broadcasting are not granted to companies with more than 10 per cent foreign capital unless their country of origin grants reciprocity to Chilean companies.
Generally, prices are market determined, except where a company has a dominant position in a sector subject to maximum price setting. Interconnection fees are also fixed by law. Financial Chile's financial sector shows significant diversification and internationalization.
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Foreign banks and insurance companies may provide services in Chile through locally incorporated companies or branches with separate capital, which may engage in the same operations as domestic firms. For reasons of national interest, approval is required to acquire more than 10 per cent of a bank's capital. The establishment of branches by foreign insurance companies is possible since ; cross-border supply of international maritime and air transport insurance, as well as insurance of goods in transit, Page Air Transport Chile practices an "open skies" air transport policy based on reciprocity.
It has concluded 43 bilateral air transport agreements with different degrees of openness. In maritime transport, cabotage is reserved to ships registered in Chile, with exceptions. To register a ship in Chile, at least 50 per cent of the capital must be owned by Chilean persons or companies. Subject to reciprocity considerations, cargo sharing requirements and a special tax may be applied to certain international maritime transport operations.